Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
http://www.jvb.periodikos.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.002118
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Review Article

O que mudou nas últimas décadas na profilaxia do tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes internados: artigo de revisão

What has changed in venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for hospitalized patients over recent decades: review article

Selma Regina de Oliveira Raymundo; Suzana Margareth Ajeje Lobo; Kassim Mohamede Kassim Hussain; Kassim Guzzon Hussein; Isabela Tobal Secches

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Resumo

Resumo: O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) é uma doença frequente e de alta morbimortalidade, sendo considerada a maior causa evitável de mortalidade em pacientes hospitalizados. Apesar da incidência altíssima de TEV em todos os países e das evidências de que a tromboprofilaxia reduz as complicações tromboembólicas em pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos, e a custo baixo, persistem grandes dúvidas quanto à segurança desse tipo de intervenção nos pacientes e quanto à tromboprofilaxia ideal. Inúmeros estudos e recomendações baseadas em evidências comprovam a eficácia da profilaxia na prevenção do TEV e/ou da morte dos pacientes, mas ainda hoje ela é subutilizada. Neste artigo, apresentamos uma ampla revisão dos métodos de profilaxia existentes até os dias atuais, publicados em diretrizes e estudos nacionais e internacionais sobre tromboprofilaxia.

Palavras-chave

tromboembolismo venoso, prevenção & controle, anticoagulantes

Abstract

Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality and is considered the number one cause of avoidable mortality among hospitalized patients. Although VTE incidence is extremely high in all countries and there is ample evidence that thromboprophylaxis inexpensively reduces the rate of thromboembolic complications in both clinical and surgical patients, a great deal of doubt remains with respect to patient safety with this type of intervention and in relation to the ideal thromboprophylaxis methods. Countless studies and evidence-based recommendations confirm the efficacy of prophylaxis for prevention of VTE and/or patient deaths, but it remains underutilized to this day. This article presents a wide-ranging review of existing prophylaxis methods up to the present, from guidelines and national and international studies of thromboprophylaxis.
 

Keywords

venous thromboembolism, prevention & control, anticoagulants

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